Twilight switches

In a time of crisis like the present one in which the energy savings turns out to be a top priority, with a view to more efficient lighting environments especially public ones such as roads, gardens, parks, monuments, signs, parking, etc., the proper assessment of the “morning twilight” (sunrise or dawn) and of the “evening twilight” (sunset), that is those moments of weak illumination that precede the rise and follow the sun, it is of paramount importance.


Dangers of electricity

It is my intention to highlight, with this article, the great danger of electricity, today too often underestimated due to the lack of a proper and continuous training for both overconfidence and carelessness.


The Legislative Basis of Electrical Safety

The purpose of this article and those that follow is to discuss the issues relating to electrical safety from design to maintenance. In this article we talk about the basis of the legislation and regulation of the electrical safety. The safety of people and things can not be separated from the rules and laws which must be interpreted and applied correctly. Before discussing the technical issues of electrical safety I need to properly address the legal rules that elect the security against accidents as a right of all citizens and workers in particular.


Determination of the average illuminance

Generally, especially in the application of the levels prescribed by the current regulations, when it comes to illumination, it means a level of average illumination of the Em, that is the average value of illumination on the working plane of the environment Considered, referring to an average ageing state and during the ordinary exercise of the illuminating equipment, while in the generality of the measures one tends to detect a series of illuminants


Electrical wires and cables

A cable is defined as the set of conductors, insulators, sheaths and armor protection or shielding, specifically built to carry the current both for energy transportation and for signal transmission


Electrical measurements

The operation of making a measurement, is defined as the result of the relationship between a given magnitude and another homogeneous choice as a sample measure unit.