Processors, how they are made and how they work

Processors, how they are made and how they work

In this article we will see in detail what processors are and what role they play inside a computer. We will see how they are structured, the functions performed and how they are characterized. In particular we will analyze the differences between the CISC and RISC architectures. Finally we will close with a quick introduction to memory and how it is structured. Fundamental concept for understanding how a processor can access it.

Levels of programming languages - from digital computers to virtual machines

Levels of programming languages – from digital computers to virtual machines

Today we have a large number of programming languages available, some with a very specific scope of operability such as the web, analysis and mathematical calculation, or data management. These languages, so high-level and easily interpretable by professionals in the specific sector, are the result of years of evolution, which have managed to transform a binary language, which can only be interpreted by machines (machine code), passing through levels of programming languages gradually more complex. In this article we will see the reasons and ways of this development.

3D Rotations and Euler Angles in Python

3D Rotations and Euler angles in Python

The virtual realities we often play with on our PCs are based on 3D engines, i.e. systems capable of performing calculations that simulate the movement and rotation of objects in a three-dimensional system. Also in robotics, in particular with robotic arms, systems are used that are able to calculate a certain movement, establishing how much the individual motors that compose them must rotate. All these systems are based on calculations and mathematical concepts capable of calculating every single movement in three-dimensional space, most of which were developed by the famous mathematician Euler (1707-1784). In this article we will see what Euler angles are, how they are calculated and how the rotational motion of a rigid body in three-dimensional Euclidean space can be calculated. All with step-by-step practical tests developed in Python.

Arduino - Servo Motors, how they work and how to control them

Arduino – Servo motors, how they work and how to control them

Servo motors are a particular type of motor, which thanks to their characteristics and ease of use, are often used in the first examples of motor control on boards such as Arduino or Raspberry. Model making makes a lot of use of this type of motors and there are many low-cost servo motors available on the market, also useful for educational purposes. In this article we will first see what servo motors are, how to use them and finally how to program Arduino in order to use them with some simple examples.

The EEPROM on Arduino - read and write data permanently

The EEPROM on Arduino – read and write data permanently

EEPROMs, which are the acronym for Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory, are special microchips used to store data even after the device on which they are mounted has been turned off. The next time it is turned on, the device will then have data available to be loaded. That is, they are memory devices that, unlike RAM, are able to keep information inside them even after the power supply has been turned off.

Robotics - The manipulators - the most common configurations

The manipulators – the most common configurations

Before starting to deal with manipulators and robotics in general, it is very important to know their structure and possible configurations. Of all the possible structures created by the combination of solid bodies and joints, in fact only a few have proven effective in carrying out particular tasks. In this article we will see the most common configurations used in the industry and in the most used robotics applications.

Generate musical tones at 440 Hz and 432 Hz with Arduino

Generate musical tones at 440Hz and 432Hz with Arduino

There is a lot of talk about musical scales, of music at 440Hz and 432Hz without at times understanding the meaning of it. In this article we will see how to generate musical scales, the theory behind them, and how to create music at 440Hz or 432Hz. We will do it all using an Arduino board, and a small speaker (or buzzer).

Seeweb - Cloud Hosting

What is Cloud Hosting

Cloud hosting is a service, provided by companies such as, which ensures the permanence of our site on the web, optimally managing the resources regarding the space and traffic that our site needs.

Installing OpenCV 4.x on Linux Ubuntu 18

OpenCV 4.x installation on Ubuntu 18

For more than a year, there have been some articles published on this site that make use of the fantastic OpenCV 3 library. The new OpenCV 4 version has just been released and as usual we will publish the compilation and installation procedure on Linux Ubuntu 18 systems.