## Inverse Kinematics

When we talk about inverse kinematics we mean the set of methodologies that allow to determine the motion of a robot to reach a desired position. But there is no better way to explain what inverse kinematics is than with a practical example

## Robot Dynamics

The dynamics in robotics, in English defined as robot dynamics, studies the forces acting on a robotic mechanism and the accelerations that these forces produce. The robotic mechanism is generally considered as a rigid system, in order to apply the dynamic laws of rigid bodies.

## Forward kinematics

Forward kinematics allows us to determine the position and orientation of the end-effector in terms of the joint variables. A simple way to explain direct kinematics is to take a very simple case and apply the basic methodologies of this technique to it.

## Hamilton’s quaternions and 3D rotation with Python

With the Euler angles the foundations for the calculation of the rotation of bodies in three-dimensional spaces were founded. However, it was later discovered that Hamilton’s quaternions are a more efficient tool for studying the rotation mode of bodies. In this article we will see what quaternions are, how they are calculated and how they apply to the rotation of a body, also helping us in this case with some Python code.

## 3D Rotations and Euler angles in Python

The virtual realities we often play with on our PCs are based on 3D engines, i.e. systems capable of performing calculations that simulate the movement and rotation of objects in a three-dimensional system. Also in robotics, in particular with robotic arms, systems are used that are able to calculate a certain movement, establishing how much the individual motors that compose them must rotate. All these systems are based on calculations and mathematical concepts capable of calculating every single movement in three-dimensional space, most of which were developed by the famous mathematician Euler (1707-1784). In this article we will see what Euler angles are, how they are calculated and how the rotational motion of a rigid body in three-dimensional Euclidean space can be calculated. All with step-by-step practical tests developed in Python.

## The manipulators – the most common configurations

Before starting to deal with manipulators and robotics in general, it is very important to know their structure and possible configurations. Of all the possible structures created by the combination of solid bodies and joints, in fact only a few have proven effective in carrying out particular tasks. In this article we will see the most common configurations used in the industry and in the most used robotics applications.

## Industry 4.0 and Factory 4.0: the new production concepts

This term, Industry 4.0 indicates the fourth industrial revolution, and the way in which it is reported, as a new release of software, does understand how information technology will come more and more in this area.

## InMoov – the open source 3D printed robot

Moov is a Gael Langevin’s project, a French sculptor and designer. His main idea was to be able to carry out a project, such as a robot, through cooperation and sharing of all those who are able to contribute in this area, working through a community of “builders”.